Photo:  A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange) (Wikipedia).
A bottleneck of immunotherapy clinical trials has put the field’s advancement on hold. Over 1,000 clinical trials are lined up to test PD-1- or PD-L1-based combinations, projecting to enroll a total of 52,000 patients. According to Tom Schuetz, CEO of Compass Therapeutics, it’s impossible to enroll those trials, and we need to do a better job about evaluating these combinations preclinically.  “We fundamentally believe in just doing a ton of preclinical experiments.” (Fierce Biotech)